Lovell High School Big Horn County School District #2

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Instructional Strategies - The following information is summaries from book studies and trainings done by staff members of Lovell High School. These instructional strategies are considered best practice and are what we as a staff strive to achieve.


Classroom Instruction that Works (2012) by Marzano 

Good teachers 

  • Create an environment for learning 
  • Set objectives 
  • Provide feedback 
  • Reinforce effort 
  • Provide recognition 
  • Use cooperative learning 
  • Help students develop understanding 
  • Use cues, questions and advanced organizers 
  • Use nonlinguistic representations 
  • Help students with summarizing and note taking 
  • Carefully assign homework and provide practice 
  • Help students extend and apply knowledge 
  • Help students identify similarities and differences 
  • Use Venn diagrams 
  • Create metaphors 
  • Create analogies 
  • Generate and test hypotheses 
  • Use systems analysis 
  • Employ problem solving 
  • Employ experimental inquiry 
  • Encourage investigation 
  • Plan instruction using the nine categories of strategies 




The Core Six: Essential Strategies for Achieving Excellence with the Common Core (2012) by Silver, Dewing & Perini 

Good teachers 

  • Capture students’ interest 
  • Explain the strategy’s purpose and students’ roles in the strategy 
  • Teach the thinking embedded in the strategy 
  • Use discussion and questioning techniques to extend student thinking 
  • Ask students to synthesize and transfer their learning 
  • Leave time for reflection 
  • Use strategies (in the content area) such as 
  • Reading for Meaning (p. 7) 
  • Compare and Contrast (p. 16) 
  • Inductive Learning (p. 27) 
  • Circle of Knowledge (p. 37) 
  • Write to Learn (p. 50) 
  • Vocabulary’s CODE (Connect, Organized, Deep Process, Exercise) (p. 65) 



Do I Really Have to Teach Reading?: Content Comprehension, Grades 6-12 (2004) Tovani 

Good teachers 

  • Show students the thinking strategies that proficient readers and writers use when reading 
  • Show fix-up strategies 
  • Use double-entry diaries  
  • “So What?” thinking strategies and diaries 
  • Use mental modeling to give students insight to thinking processes 
  • Show how to read textbooks (especially math) 
  • Model how to stay with a text 
  • Connect students with accessible texts 
  • Use alternative texts 
  • Do not sacrifice rigor 
  • Define purposes of reading/teaching 
  • Help students to hold thinking 
  • Show students how to mark text 
  • Provide students with tips to get “unstuck” 
  • Use comprehension constructors 
  • Double-strategy, double-entry diary 
  • Quad-entry diary 
  • Notes, Connector, Group Notes 
  • Use small groups to discuss reading 
  • Highlight and revisit 
  • Use assessment to drive instruction 


Fair Isn’t Always Equal: Assessing and Grading in the Differentiated Classroom (2006) by Wormeli 

Good teachers 

  • Begin with the end in mind 
  • Differentiate instruction 
  • Differentiate assessments 
  • Tier assessments 
  • Create good test questions 
  • Grade carefully and thoughtfully 
  • Are reflective about their own practices 
  • Mentor, model and learn from other good teachers 



Focus: Elevating the Essentials to Radically Improve Student Learning (2011) by Schmoker 

Good teachers 

  • Use essential “power” standards, so that there is more depth, and less breadth; 
  • Standards are clarified, simplified and prioritized 
  • Attention is given to 21st Century skills 
  • Use “structurally sound lessons” consistently; 
  • Teach/Model/Demonstrate 
  • Use guided practice 
  • Have checks for understanding/formative assessment 
  • Circulate as students underline, annotate, or take notes 
  • Have students pair up and share 
  • Call on random students to share their thoughts 
  • Asks students to quick-write while teacher circulates 
  • Use authentic literacy  
  • This is purposeful and usually argumentative reading, writing and talking 
  • Teach vocabulary 
  • Establish a purpose for reading 
  • Model higher-order reading 
  • Use whole-class discussions and debate 



Quantum Learning 

Good teachers 

  • Practice brain-based teaching and learning 
  • Remind students of the 8 Keys of Excellence:  
  • Integrity 
  • Failure Leads to Success 
  • Speak with Purpose 
  • This Is It 
  • Commitment 
  • Ownership 
  • Flexibility 
  • Balance 
  • Use effective classroom management: 
  • Call-backs 
  • Environmental control (music, lighting, classroom arrangements, organics, smells, temperature, sound) 
  • Techniques to set the stage for learning through FADE (Foundation, Atmosphere, Design, Environment) 
  • Five tenets of teaching: 
  • Everything speaks 
  • Everything is on purpose 
  • Experience before label 
  • Acknowledge every effort 
  • If it’s worth learning, it’s worth celebrating 
  • Use opening traditions (greet students out in the hall, use music, etc.)  
  • Understand how the brain works to maximize learning and memory, 
  • Paying attention to three educational channels that are 
  • Visual 
  • Kinesthetic 
  • Audial 
  • 3 Big Brain Ideas 
  • We make meaning by connecting to existing schema. 
  • Neurons that fire together wire together. 
  • There is no comprehension without picturing. 
  • Invite students to take responsibility by “living above the line.” 
  • Use the lesson design frame of E-E-L-D-R-C 
  • Enroll 
  • Experience 
  • Learn and Label 
  • Demonstrate 
  • Review 
  • Celebrate 
  • Use mnemonics and power pegs  
  • Encourage students to use the principle of 10-24-7 (Review after 10 minutes, 24 hours, 7 days) 
  • Teach students about visible communication and effective apologies 
  • Teach to different learning styles 
  • Understand Delta – Theta – Alpha – Beta Brainwaves 
  • Attend to the 8 multiple intelligences 
  • Encourage students to use SLANT (Sit up/Lean and look/Ask questions/Nod/Talk to adults) 
  • Teach students about valuing relationships (Big Me Little You) (Big Me Big You) 




TESA (Teacher Expectation Student Achievement) 

Good teachers  

  • Are aware of their perceptions and expectations for students, especially for 
  • Response opportunity 
  • Equitable distribution 
  • Individual helping 
  • Latency 
  • Delving 
  • Higher-order thinking 
  • Feedback 
  • Praise 
  • Reason for praise 
  • Affirm/Correct 
  • Listening 
  • Accepting feelings 
  • Personal Regard 
  • Proximity 
  • Courtesy 
  • Personal interest and compliments 
  • Touching 
  • Desisting 


Tools for Teaching Content Literacy (2004) by Allen 

Good teachers 

  • Assess and build content knowledge 
  • K-W-L, K-W-L Plus, B-K-W-L-Q 
  • Skimming and Scanning 
  • List-Group-Label 
  • Book Pass 
  • Text Structures and Supports 
  • Developing Questions for Reading: Concept Ladder 
  • Word Study: Developing Content Vocabulary 
  • Book in a Day 
  • Word Study: How to Learn Content Vocabulary through Context 
  • Admit Slip: Establishing a Purpose for Reading 
  • Anticipating Content: Here and Now, Predict-O-Gram, Story Impressions 
  • Anticipation Guide 
  • Support and monitor comprehension 
  • Reciprocal Teaching 
  • DR-TA (Directed Reading-Thinking Activity) 
  • REAP (Read, Encode, Annotate, Ponder) 
  • Compare/Contrast: Discovering Patterns 
  • Questions Game 
  • TAG (Textbook Activity Guide) 
  • ReQuest 
  • Cornell Note-Taking 
  • QAR (Question-Answer Relationship) 
  • Academic Notebooks: Writing to Learn 
  • Evaluate, extend, and transfer content knowledge 
  • RAFT Writing (Role, Audience, Format, Topic) 
  • Text Highlighting 
  • SPAWN (Special Powers, Problem Solving, Alternative Viewpoints, What-if, Next) 
  • Test-Taking Strategies 
  • PORPE (Predict, Organize, Rehearse, Practice, Evaluate) 
  • Inquiry and Research: I-Charts 
  • GIST (Generating Interactions between Schemata and Texts) 
  • Homework 
  • Exclusion Brainstorming 
  • Exit Slips 



What Great Teachers Do Differently: 17 Things that Matter Most (2013) by Whitaker 

Good teachers 

  • Establish clear expectations at the beginning of the year and then follow them consistently. 
  • Have high expectations for all students, as well as themselves. 
  • Focus on students first. 
  • Create a positive atmosphere and respect every person. 
  • Have a plan and purpose for everything. 
  • Have empathy for students and care for them. 



What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action (2003) by Marzano 

Good schools 

  • Make sure students have every opportunity to learn through a guaranteed and viable curriculum. 
  • Set challenging goals and give effective feedback 
  • Involve the community and parents 
  • Ensure a safe and orderly environment 
  • Maintain collegiality and professionalism 

Good teachers 

  • Use instructional strategies that work 
  • Use effective classroom management 
  • Use effective curriculum design 
  • Understand that students’ home environment, learned intelligence, background knowledge and motivation are all factors in learning and teaching 



The First Days of School: How to Be an Effective Teacher (2009) by Wong and Wong 

Good teachers 

  • Have good classroom management 
  • Are not “pals” with their students 
  • Have positive expectations for student success (p. 10) 
  • Know how to design lessons for student mastery 
  • Work cooperatively and learn from colleagues (p. 21) 
  • Know that a positive classroom environment is very important 
  • Know that positive, professional dress is very important  
  • Invite students to learn 
  • Increase positive student behavior 
  • Name 
  • Please 
  • Thank you 
  • Smile 
  • Love 
  • Have well-managed classrooms that have (p. 86) 
  • A high level of student involvement 
  • Clear student expectations 
  • Very little wasted time, confusion or disruption 
  • Work-oriented but relaxed and pleasant climate 
  • Have a discipline plan and use it 
  • Establish classroom procedures/Are consistent 
  • Know the objectives the students are to learn before the lesson begins 
  • Use Bloom’s Taxonomy when writing objectives 
  • Use curriculum maps 
  • Grade and remediate for mastery